This handbook describes the historical and legal context of the TRIPS Agreement, its role within the WTO and its institutional framework, and provides information on the following areas: general provisions and fundamental principles; copyright and related rights; trademarks; geographical indications; patents; industrial designs, layout designs, undisclosed information and anti-competitive practices; the enforcement of intellectual property; dispute settlement under the TRIPS Agreement; TRIPS and public health; and current TRIPS themes. It contains a guide to TRIPS notification by WTO members and describes the modalities of access and use of official documents relating to the TRIPS Agreement and related matters. It also contains the legal texts of the TRIPS Agreement and the relevant provisions of the WIPO agreements referred to therein, as well as the relevant WTO instruments. TRIPS conditions that impose more standards beyond TRIPS were also discussed.  These free trade agreements contain conditions that limit the ability of governments to create competition for generic drug manufacturers. In particular, the United States has been criticized for encouraging protection far beyond the standards imposed by TRIPS. U.S. free trade agreements with Australia, Morocco, and Bahrain have extended patentability by requiring patents to be available for new uses of known products.  The TRIPS Agreement allows for the issuance of compulsory licences at the discretion of a country. .